Nutritional Analysis: Food and Related Products

Nutritional analysis of food and related products is a critical aspect in understanding the composition and impact of various consumable items on human health. By examining the nutritional content, such as macronutrients, micronutrients, vitamins, minerals, and additives present in different foods, researchers can evaluate their potential benefits and risks for individuals. For example, let us consider a hypothetical case study where an individual diagnosed with diabetes wants to determine the carbohydrate content of a particular brand of breakfast cereal before including it into their diet. Through conducting a thorough Nutritional Analysis, they will be able to make informed decisions regarding their dietary choices.

The field of nutritional analysis encompasses various methodologies that allow for accurate measurement and assessment of food components. This includes techniques such as proximate analysis, which determines the amount of protein, fat, carbohydrates, moisture, fiber, ash content present in a sample. Additionally, instrumental methods like spectrophotometry or chromatography are employed to measure specific nutrients or contaminants within food samples. The results obtained from these analyses provide valuable insights not only for consumers but also for regulatory bodies in ensuring compliance with health standards and promoting public safety.

In this article, we will delve deeper into the importance of nutritional analysis in understanding the composition of food and related products. We will explore the various components that are analyzed in nutritional analysis, discuss the techniques used to measure these components, and highlight the significance of this information for individuals and society as a whole. Furthermore, we will examine how advancements in technology have revolutionized the field of nutritional analysis, making it more accurate and efficient than ever before.

Understanding the composition of food is essential for maintaining a healthy diet and preventing nutrition-related diseases. By analyzing macronutrients such as carbohydrates, proteins, and fats, individuals can determine their caloric intake and make informed decisions about portion sizes and meal planning. For example, someone with diabetes may need to monitor their carbohydrate consumption closely to manage their blood sugar levels effectively.

Micronutrients such as vitamins and minerals play a crucial role in supporting overall health and well-being. Nutritional analysis allows individuals to identify any deficiencies or excesses in these nutrients that may impact their health. This information can guide them in making dietary adjustments or considering supplementation if necessary.

Analyzing additives present in food products is also vital for understanding potential risks associated with consuming certain products. Food additives such as preservatives, artificial sweeteners, colors, and flavors are commonly used in processed foods. Nutritional analysis helps consumers identify which products contain these additives and make choices based on personal preferences or dietary restrictions.

The techniques used in nutritional analysis have evolved significantly over time. Traditional methods like proximate analysis provide valuable insights into the basic composition of food samples but may not be sufficient for detailed nutrient profiling. Instrumental methods such as spectrophotometry, chromatography, mass spectrometry, and immunoassays enable precise measurement of specific nutrients or contaminants within food samples. These advanced techniques allow researchers to obtain accurate data quickly and efficiently.

Advancements in technology have further enhanced nutritional analysis by introducing innovative tools like handheld devices and smartphone applications that allow consumers to analyze the nutritional content of foods themselves. These user-friendly interfaces provide instant access to information, empowering individuals to make informed choices while shopping or dining out.

In conclusion, nutritional analysis plays a vital role in understanding the composition and impact of various foods on human health. By examining macronutrients, micronutrients, vitamins, minerals, and additives present in different consumable items, individuals can make informed decisions about their dietary choices. The advancements in technology have made nutritional analysis more accessible and efficient than ever before, allowing consumers to take charge of their health and well-being.

Serving Size

Imagine you are browsing through the aisles of a grocery store, trying to decide between two different brands of potato chips. One brand proudly claims that it is “low-fat,” while the other boasts about its “all-natural” ingredients. As a conscientious consumer, you want to make an informed choice based on nutrition facts rather than marketing gimmicks. This is where the concept of serving size becomes crucial.

The serving size listed on food labels provides important information about how much of a particular product constitutes one serving. For instance, if you were to examine the back of a bag of potato chips, you might find that the serving size is 1 ounce or approximately 28 grams. By understanding this measurement, you can accurately assess and compare nutritional values across different products.

To highlight the significance of serving size in making healthy choices, consider the following bullet points:

  • A smaller serving size may give the illusion of being healthier since all nutrient values will appear lower.
  • Conversely, larger serving sizes can be misleading by providing more calories and nutrients than expected.
  • Paying attention to portion control can help individuals maintain a balanced diet and manage their weight effectively.
  • Understanding serving sizes allows consumers to accurately track calorie intake and meet dietary recommendations.

This table presents an example comparing two breakfast cereals with varying serving sizes:

Cereal A (30g) Cereal B (45g)
Calories 110 160
Total Fat 2g 4g
Sodium 180mg 240mg
Fiber 3g 6g

As seen in this example table, even though Cereal B has higher absolute values for calories, total fat, sodium, and fiber compared to Cereal A due to its larger serving size, the relative nutritional content per gram may still vary. Hence, understanding serving sizes allows for more accurate comparisons and informed decision-making.

In transitioning to the next section about calories, it is important to recognize that serving size acts as a foundation for assessing the overall nutritional impact of food products. By focusing on portion sizes and their implications, we can delve further into evaluating specific nutrients such as calories.


In the previous section, we examined the concept of serving size and its importance in understanding the nutritional content of food products. Now, let’s delve into another crucial aspect of nutritional analysis: calories.

Calories are a measure of energy provided by food when consumed. Understanding calorie content is essential for maintaining a healthy diet and managing weight. To illustrate this point, consider an example where two individuals consume different Serving Sizes of a popular breakfast cereal. Person A follows the recommended serving size of 1 cup, while person B consumes 2 cups instead. Despite consuming the same product, person B would be consuming twice as many calories as person A due to their larger serving size.

To further emphasize the significance of monitoring calorie intake, here are some key points to consider:

  • Calories provide fuel for our bodies to function properly.
  • Consuming more calories than needed can lead to weight gain.
  • Caloric needs vary depending on factors such as age, gender, activity level, and overall health.
  • Balancing calorie intake with physical activity is essential for weight maintenance or achieving weight loss goals.

Let’s summarize the information discussed so far using a table:

Point Description
Calories Measure of energy provided by food
Serving Size Quantity of food considered as one serving
Weight Control Monitoring caloric intake helps manage weight
Individuality Caloric needs differ based on various factors like age, gender, activity level, and health status

As we move forward in our exploration of nutritional analysis, it becomes clear that understanding both serving size and calorie content plays a vital role in making informed dietary choices.

Next up: Total Fat

Total Fat

In the previous section, we discussed the importance of monitoring calorie intake in order to maintain a healthy diet. Now, let us delve into another crucial aspect of nutritional analysis: total fat content. To illustrate this concept, consider the following example: imagine two food products – Product A and Product B – both containing 200 calories per serving. However, when analyzing their total fat content, it becomes apparent that Product A contains significantly more fat than Product B.

Understanding the amount of fat present in our food is essential as excessive consumption can lead to various health issues such as obesity and heart disease. Here are some key points to consider regarding Total Fat:

  • Total fat refers to the sum of different types of fats found in food, including saturated fats, trans fats, monounsaturated fats, and polyunsaturated fats.
  • While not all fats are detrimental to our health, it is important to limit the intake of saturated and trans fats due to their association with increased cholesterol levels and cardiovascular risks.
  • On the other hand, monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fats – commonly found in sources like avocados, nuts, seeds, and fish – have been shown to have potential health benefits when consumed in moderation.
Food Item Serving Size (g) Total Fat (g)
Avocado 100 15
Almonds 28 14
Salmon 85 12
Potato Chips 28 10

By comparing these examples side by side within the table above, it becomes evident that certain foods contain higher amounts of total fat compared to others. This information empowers individuals to select healthier options that align with their dietary goals.

Understanding the impact of saturated fat on our health is crucial in maintaining a balanced diet and making informed food choices.

Saturated Fat

Section H2: Saturated Fat

Transitioning from the previous section discussing “Total Fat,” it is important to further examine the impact of saturated fat on nutritional analysis. Saturated fat, commonly found in animal products and some plant-based oils, has been a subject of concern due to its potential negative effects on health. By analyzing the content of saturated fat in various food and related products, we can gain insights into its significance within our diets.

For instance, consider a case study where two individuals consume identical calorie amounts but differ in their sources of saturated fat intake. One individual consumes primarily processed foods high in saturated fats, while the other focuses on whole foods with minimal saturated fat content. This hypothetical scenario allows us to investigate how varying levels of saturated fat affect overall nutrition.

To better understand the implications of consuming excessive amounts of saturated fats, let us delve into four key factors that highlight its impact:

  1. Increased risk of cardiovascular diseases: Studies have shown a positive correlation between diets rich in saturated fats and an increased risk of developing heart diseases such as coronary artery disease.
  2. Influence on cholesterol levels: High consumption of saturated fats can raise low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol levels, known as “bad” cholesterol, potentially leading to plaque buildup in arteries.
  3. Impact on weight management: Foods high in saturated fats are often energy-dense and may contribute to weight gain if consumed excessively or as part of an imbalanced diet.
  4. Potential link to certain cancers: Although research on this topic is ongoing, some studies suggest that diets high in saturated fats might be associated with an increased risk of certain types of cancer.

To illustrate these points further, refer to the table below highlighting examples of common food items categorized based on their respective levels of saturated fat content:

Food Item Saturated Fat Content
Butter High
Coconut Oil High
Avocado Low
Salmon Low

As we move forward in our exploration of nutritional analysis, the subsequent section will examine the impact of cholesterol on food and related products. Understanding how saturated fat influences cholesterol levels is crucial for comprehending its broader implications.

Transitioning into the next section about “Cholesterol,” let us continue our investigation into the intricacies of these interconnected elements within nutritional analysis.


Transitioning from our discussion on saturated fat, let’s now delve into another important aspect of nutritional analysis: cholesterol. To better understand the impact of cholesterol on our health, consider the following hypothetical scenario:

Imagine a middle-aged individual who regularly consumes foods high in saturated fats and has an elevated level of LDL (low-density lipoprotein) cholesterol – often referred to as “bad” cholesterol. This person also leads a sedentary lifestyle with minimal exercise or physical activity.

Cholesterol plays a crucial role in various bodily functions; however, excessive amounts can have detrimental effects on cardiovascular health. When consumed in excess, it can contribute to the formation of plaque within arteries, narrowing their diameter and increasing the risk of heart disease.

To help illustrate this further, here are some key points about Cholesterol:

  • Cholesterol is primarily found in animal-based products such as meat, dairy, and eggs.
  • Consuming too much saturated fat can raise LDL cholesterol levels.
  • High levels of LDL cholesterol increase the risk of developing heart disease.
  • Incorporating healthier fats like polyunsaturated and monounsaturated fats can help lower LDL cholesterol.

Now, let’s take a moment to explore these concepts visually through a table that highlights common food items along with their corresponding saturated fat content:

Food Item Saturated Fat Content per 100g
Butter 51g
Cheese 20g
Bacon 42g
Whole Milk 3.2g

As we conclude our discussion on saturated fat and transition to exploring sodium intake next, it becomes evident that making conscious choices regarding our dietary habits is essential for maintaining optimal health. By understanding how certain nutrients impact our bodies and being aware of which foods contain them at higher levels, we empower ourselves to make informed decisions when it comes to nourishing our bodies effectively. So, let’s now turn our attention to examining the role of sodium in our diets and its potential health implications.

[Start next section H2: ‘Sodium’]


Cholesterol is just one of the many factors that contribute to the overall nutritional profile of food products. Another crucial element to consider is sodium content. While cholesterol has been widely studied for its impact on heart health, excessive sodium intake can also have detrimental effects on our well-being.

To illustrate this point, let’s examine a hypothetical case study involving two popular snack foods: potato chips and pretzels. Both snacks are known for their savory flavors and crunchy textures, making them appealing choices for consumers seeking a quick treat. However, when it comes to sodium content, there is a significant difference between these two options.

Consider the following bullet points highlighting key aspects related to sodium consumption:

  • High levels of dietary sodium can increase blood pressure, which in turn raises the risk of cardiovascular diseases such as stroke and heart attack.
  • The American Heart Association recommends limiting daily sodium intake to no more than 2,300 milligrams (mg), with an ideal limit of 1,500 mg per day for most adults.
  • Processed foods often contain high amounts of added salt to enhance flavor and prolong shelf life.
  • It is important to read nutrition labels carefully and choose low-sodium alternatives whenever possible.

Now let’s delve into a three-column table showcasing the sodium content comparison between potato chips and pretzels:

Snack Serving Size (g) Sodium Content (mg)
Potato Chips 28 170
Pretzels 28 390

As we can see from the table above, while both snacks may provide similar portion sizes, pretzels contain significantly higher levels of sodium compared to potato chips. This emphasizes the importance of being mindful about our snacking choices and considering healthier alternatives.

Transitioning into the subsequent section focusing on protein analysis, it becomes evident that understanding various components like cholesterol and sodium is crucial to obtaining a comprehensive understanding of the nutritional value of food products. By exploring each element, we can make informed decisions about our dietary choices in pursuit of a balanced lifestyle.


Sodium is an essential mineral that plays a crucial role in maintaining fluid balance, transmitting nerve impulses, and contributing to muscle function. However, excessive sodium intake has been linked to various health issues such as high blood pressure and increased risk of cardiovascular diseases. To understand the significance of monitoring sodium content in food products, let’s consider the case study of a middle-aged individual with hypertension.

Imagine a person diagnosed with hypertension who aims to reduce their daily sodium intake for better management of their condition. They diligently read product labels and opt for low-sodium alternatives whenever possible. This example highlights the importance of clear labeling and accessible information regarding sodium content in food items.

To further emphasize the impact of sodium on our health, here are some key considerations:

  • Excessive sodium consumption can lead to water retention, resulting in bloating and swelling.
  • High levels of dietary salt have been associated with an increased risk of developing kidney stones.
  • Sodium-rich diets may contribute to the progression of osteoporosis by increasing calcium excretion through urine.
  • Studies suggest that reducing sodium intake can help lower blood pressure levels, thus decreasing the risk of cardiovascular events.

Let’s now take a closer look at how different food items compare in terms of their sodium content:

Food Item Sodium Content per Serving (mg)
Canned Soup 800
Fresh Vegetables 50
Processed Meats 600
Whole Wheat Bread 200

This table illustrates the significant variation in sodium content among commonly consumed foods. It serves as a reminder that being mindful of ingredient choices and reading labels carefully can make a considerable difference when it comes to managing one’s sodium intake.

As we move forward into exploring another vital aspect of nutrition – protein – it becomes evident that understanding macronutrient composition aids us in making informed decisions about our diet. By maintaining a balanced intake of essential nutrients, we can strive towards achieving overall well-being and leading a healthy lifestyle. In the following section, we will delve into the role protein plays in our diet.

Transitioning to the subsequent section on “Carbohydrates,” it is important to continue exploring the various macronutrients that contribute to our nutritional needs. Understanding how carbohydrates function within our bodies allows us to make informed decisions about their consumption. So let’s now turn our attention towards carbohydrates and their significance in maintaining a healthy diet.


Now, let us delve into another crucial macronutrient: carbohydrates. Carbohydrates serve as the primary source of energy for our bodies and play a significant role in maintaining proper physiological function.

To illustrate the importance of carbohydrates, consider this scenario: imagine an individual embarking on a long-distance run without consuming any carbohydrates beforehand. As they begin their journey, they quickly realize that their energy levels rapidly decline, resulting in fatigue and poor performance. This example demonstrates how carbohydrates are critical for sustaining endurance activities by providing readily available fuel for our muscles.

When we consume foods rich in carbohydrates, such as grains, fruits, and vegetables, our digestive system breaks them down into glucose molecules – simple sugars that can be easily absorbed by our cells. Glucose serves as an immediate energy source while also being stored in our liver and muscles as glycogen to replenish energy stores when needed.

Understanding the significance of carbohydrates goes beyond recognizing their role in providing energy. Let’s explore further with a bullet-point list:

  • Carbohydrates contribute to brain health by supplying glucose, which is the preferred fuel for neuronal activity.
  • Fibrous carbohydrates aid digestion by promoting regular bowel movements and preventing constipation.
  • Consuming complex carbohydrates instead of refined ones helps regulate blood sugar levels more effectively.
  • Certain types of dietary fiber found in carbohydrates have been linked to reducing the risk of chronic diseases like heart disease and diabetes.

Now let’s visualize this information through a table highlighting different sources of carbohydrates along with their respective benefits:

Type Sources Benefits
Simple Fruits Quick energy release
White bread Immediate satisfaction
Complex Whole grains Sustained energy
Legumes High in fiber, protein, and nutrients
Fiber Broccoli Promotes healthy digestion
Chia seeds Aids in weight management
Oats Lowers cholesterol levels

As we can see from the table above, carbohydrates come in various forms, each with its own benefits. Incorporating a balanced combination of these sources into our diets ensures that we receive the necessary energy while also promoting overall health.

Transitioning seamlessly to our next section on fiber, it is important to recognize how this component contributes significantly to digestive health and overall well-being. By exploring the role of fiber in our diet, we can further comprehend the importance of maintaining a nutritionally balanced approach to food consumption.


Carbohydrates play a crucial role in our diet, providing us with the energy necessary for various bodily functions. However, another important component that is often overlooked is fiber. Fiber refers to the indigestible part of plant-based foods and has numerous health benefits. Let’s delve into the significance of fiber in our daily nutrition.

To illustrate the importance of fiber, let’s consider a hypothetical scenario where two individuals consume identical meals except for their fiber intake. Person A consumes a diet rich in whole grains, fruits, vegetables, and legumes – all excellent sources of dietary fiber. In contrast, Person B relies heavily on processed foods low in fiber content. Over time, Person A experiences regular bowel movements and improved digestion due to the adequate amount of fiber consumed. On the other hand, Person B may suffer from constipation and digestive discomfort as a result of insufficient dietary fiber.

Including an ample amount of fiber-rich foods in your diet offers several advantages:

  • Promotes healthy digestion: Fiber adds bulk to stool, preventing constipation and promoting regularity.
  • Weight management: High-fiber foods tend to be more filling, reducing overall calorie intake and aiding weight loss or maintenance efforts.
  • Blood sugar control: Soluble fibers can slow down carbohydrate absorption, helping regulate blood glucose levels.
  • Heart health: Certain types of soluble fibers have been linked to lower cholesterol levels and reduced risk of heart disease.

Now let’s take a closer look at some common examples of high-fiber foods:

Food Serving Size (1 cup) Fiber Content
Lentils 15g 16g
Avocado 150g 10g
Whole wheat pasta 140g 6g
Raspberries 123g 8g

As you can see, incorporating these fiber-rich foods into your diet can significantly contribute to meeting your daily fiber requirements.

Moving forward, we will explore the impact of sugar on our nutritional intake and overall health. With rising concerns about its effects, understanding how sugar fits into a balanced diet is essential for making informed dietary choices.


Fiber is an essential component of a healthy diet, known for its numerous health benefits. As we transition from discussing fiber to exploring the impact of sugar on our nutritional analysis, it is important to understand the role that sugar plays in our food and related products.

Imagine you are standing in a grocery store aisle, searching for a nutritious cereal option. You come across two different boxes: one labeled as high in fiber and another boasting low sugar content. Which would you choose? While both aspects are crucial for maintaining a balanced diet, understanding the effects of sugar consumption can help us make informed choices.

When analyzing the nutritional composition of various foods and related products, it becomes evident that excessive sugar intake can lead to several adverse health effects. Here are some key points to consider:

  • Increased risk of obesity: Consuming foods high in added sugars contributes significantly to weight gain and increases the likelihood of developing obesity.
  • Elevated blood glucose levels: Excessive sugar consumption has been linked to elevated blood glucose levels, which pose a risk for individuals with diabetes or prediabetes.
  • Dental problems: Frequent intake of sugary foods and beverages promotes tooth decay and cavities due to prolonged exposure of teeth to sugars.
  • Negative cardiovascular effects: High intake of added sugars may increase the risk factors associated with heart disease such as high blood pressure and unhealthy cholesterol levels.

To further illustrate this point, let’s take a look at the following table showcasing the amount of added sugars found in common food items:

Food Item Sugar Content (per serving)
Soda 39 grams
Chocolate bar 20 grams
Flavored yogurt 15 grams
Canned fruit 10 grams

These examples highlight how certain seemingly innocent foods can contain significant amounts of hidden sugars. By being aware of these values, consumers can be more conscious about their dietary choices and make more informed decisions.

As we move forward in our analysis, the next section will delve into the role of vitamins in food and related products. By examining their importance and impact on overall health, we can gain a better understanding of how to optimize our diets for maximum nutritional benefits. So let’s explore the world of vitamins together!


Transition from Previous Section:

Continuing our exploration of nutritional analysis, we now shift our focus to another significant element in food and related products – vitamins. Just as sugar plays a crucial role in our diet, so do these essential nutrients that are vital for the proper functioning of our bodies.

Vitamins: Essential Nutrients for Optimal Health

Imagine a person who consumes a well-balanced diet consisting of fruits, vegetables, and whole grains but lacks sufficient vitamin intake. Despite their wholesome eating habits, this individual may still be at risk of developing certain deficiencies due to inadequate vitamin consumption. Vitamins are organic compounds required by the body in small amounts to support various physiological processes. They act as catalysts for numerous biochemical reactions, ensuring optimal health and preventing various diseases.

To illustrate the significance of vitamins, let us consider the case study of Sarah, an otherwise healthy adult experiencing fatigue and frequent infections. After careful examination by her healthcare provider, it was determined that she had insufficient levels of vitamin C and D in her system. This deficiency was leading to weakened immunity and reduced energy levels. By incorporating foods rich in these specific vitamins into her daily diet or through appropriate supplementation, Sarah’s overall health improved significantly.

  • The inclusion of an adequate amount of vitamins in one’s diet is crucial for maintaining optimal health.
  • Different types of vitamins play diverse roles within the body.
  • Deficiencies in specific vitamins can lead to various adverse effects on physical well-being.
  • Adequate knowledge regarding recommended daily allowances (RDAs) helps individuals ensure they meet their vitamin requirements.
Vitamin Role Food Sources
Vitamin A Supports vision, immune function, and cell growth Carrots, sweet potatoes, spinach
Vitamin D Facilitates calcium absorption; promotes bone health Fatty fish (salmon), fortified dairy products
Vitamin C Boosts immune system; aids collagen production Citrus fruits, strawberries, bell peppers
Vitamin E Acts as an antioxidant protecting cells from damage Nuts (almonds), seeds, spinach

Understanding the importance of vitamins and their impact on our well-being provides a perspective for making informed dietary choices. By incorporating vitamin-rich foods into our meals and ensuring we meet the recommended daily allowances, we can safeguard ourselves against potential deficiencies that may compromise our health.

Transition to Next Section:

As vital as vitamins are in maintaining optimal health, another crucial aspect of nutritional analysis lies in the examination of minerals. These essential elements play key roles within our bodies and contribute significantly to various physiological processes. Let us now delve deeper into exploring the significance of minerals in our diet and how they influence overall well-being.


Vitamins play a crucial role in maintaining our overall health and well-being. As we delve deeper into the realm of nutritional analysis, it is essential to explore not only vitamins but also their counterparts: minerals. These two categories are often discussed together due to their similar importance in supporting various bodily functions. In this section, we will examine the significance of minerals and how they contribute to our overall nutritional needs.

To illustrate the impact that minerals have on our bodies, let us consider a hypothetical case study involving an individual with iron deficiency. Iron is an essential mineral responsible for transporting oxygen throughout the body. Without sufficient iron intake, this person may experience fatigue, weakness, and difficulty concentrating due to reduced oxygen-carrying capacity in their blood. This example underscores the vital role that minerals play in ensuring optimal physical functioning.

When analyzing food products for their mineral content, several key factors should be considered:

  • Bioavailability: Different forms of minerals can vary in their ability to be absorbed by the body. For instance, plant-based sources of calcium may have lower bioavailability compared to dairy products.
  • Recommended Daily Allowance (RDA): Understanding the recommended amount of each mineral necessary for proper nutrition is crucial when evaluating its presence in food products.
  • Fortification: Some food manufacturers add specific minerals during processing to enhance the product’s nutritional value or meet certain dietary requirements.
  • Interactions: Minerals can interact with other nutrients within our bodies. For example, vitamin C enhances iron absorption while calcium may inhibit iron absorption if consumed simultaneously.
Food Product Calcium (mg) Iron (mg) Magnesium (mg)
Spinach 99 2.7 79
Salmon 12 0.5 26
Almonds 76 1.2 75
Yogurt 184 0.4 18

By examining this table, you can identify which foods are rich in specific minerals and make informed decisions when planning your meals.

In conclusion, minerals, like vitamins, are essential components of our diet that contribute to overall health and well-being. Understanding their significance and incorporating them into our daily nutrition is crucial for maintaining optimal bodily functions. By analyzing food products for mineral content, considering factors such as bioavailability, RDA, fortification, and interactions with other nutrients, we can make informed dietary choices that support our nutritional needs.

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